List of Regulators in North Carolina Compiled by Jerry Cross
Formerly on the website: http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/mckstmerindivid.htm Names of North Carolina Regulators. This list is largely the compilation of Jerry Cross, Researcher, Historic Sites Section, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 27 Nov 1974 that is available at the Alamance Battleground site. He compiled it from petitions to the Assembly and to the governor by North Carolina residents who were sympathetic to the Regulators. How many of this list actually actively participated in resistance movements or demonstrations is unclear. Some were present at Alamance and died there. Some corrections and additions have been made by the current author, WLM, in response to readers and new information. Acuages, John; Adams, James; Adams, Thomas; Adams, William; Aiken Jones; Albright, William; Aldridge, James; Aldridge, Nathan; Aldridge, Nicholas; Alexander, William; Alexander, Thomas; Allen, Joseph; Allen, Samuel; Almond, Edward; Allmond, James; Almond, Seamore; Allrid, William; Andriss, Adam; Andriss, Conrad; Armstrong, Isaac; Armstrong, James; Arnett, James F.; Arrington, Thomas; Ashley, Nathaniel; Ashley, Robert; Ashmore, Walter; Awtray, alex; Baile, John; Bailey, John; Baily, Thomas; Balice, Thomas; Bannistor, William; Brber, richard; Barber, William; Barindine, James; Barindine, William Jr. & Sr.; Barker, james; Barker, Nicholas; Barker, Samuel; Barnes, Brincelay; Barnes, James; Barnes, John; Barritt, Benjamin; Barrets, Thomas; Barton, John; Barton, William; Baxter, John; Beaty, Thomas; Beck, Jeffrey; Beel, Thomas; Belhany, Thomas; Bell, John; Bellew, Abraham; Belvin, George; Belvin, Isaac; Bennett, John; Benton, William; Bery, John; Beten, William; Bignour, James; Billingsley, James; Binnum, James; Blewett, William; Bly, James; Boatman, Waterman; Boe, John; Boggan, Patrick Jr.; Boggs, Joseph; Boilston, Will; Bond, John; Bond, W.C.B.; Boothe, Charles; Boring, Joseph; Bosil, William; Bound, James; Bradley, Abram; Bradley, Lawrence; Brady, Ayen; Branson, Ely; Branson, Thomas; Brantley, James; Braswell, Benjamin; Braswell, Richard; Bray, Edward; Bray, Henry; Brewer, Nickless; Bricks, John; Brisley, Peter; Broadway, Robert; Brooks, Isaac; Brooks, Jacob W.; Brooks, James; Brooks, Jacob W.; Brooks, James; Brooks, John; Brown, Daniel; Brown, David; Brown, James; Brown, Robert; Brown, William; Brox, John; Brur, Noel; Brus, John; Bruton, Samuel; Bryan, John; Buchanan, Samuel; Bullen, John; Bumpass, John; Bunt, Benjamin; Burcham, Henry; Brucham, James; Burcham, John; Burcham, Joseph; Burgies, James; Burns, Darass; Burns, William; Burt, William; Burtson. John; Bush, Stephen; Buskin, Abraham; Butler, John; Butler, William; Busen, William; Calley, Patrick; Cane, William; Capin, John; Caps, William; Carpenter, Jobs; Carr, Joseph; Cartwright, John; Caterham, John; Caruthers, Robert; Ceinght, Peter; Chafen, Joseph; Chambers, Edward; Cheek, Randolph; Cheny, Francis; Christian, Christopher; Christian, Thomas; Christman, Jacob; Cilleadon, Job; Clanton, Benjamin; Clapp, Barney; Clap, George; Claps John; Clapp, Ludwig; Clap, Tobias; Clark, Elijah; Clark. John; Clark, Joseph; Clark, Samuel; Clauton, Charles; Cochran, Benjamin W.; Cockerham, John; Code, Timothy; Colbon, James; Coleman, John; Coleman, William; Collins, Jacob; Collons, Josua; Conkwrite, Harklis; Copeland, James; Copeland, William Jr.; Copeland, William Sr.; Coplin, Nicklos; Coplin, Thomas; Corry, John; Gortner, George; Cortner, Peter; Covington, Benjamin; Cowen, John; Cox, David; Cox, Herman; Cox, Joseph; Cox, Solomon; Cos, Thomas; Cox, William; Craswell, John; Craswell, William; Craven, John; Craven, Joseph; Cravan, Peter; Cravan, Thomas; Creaton, Patrick; Creson, Abraham; Crofts, Solomon; Croswell, Gilbard; Croswell, John; Croswell, William; Crow, John; Crow, Mansfield; Culberson, Samuel; Culbison, Andrew; Davis, Enoch; Culpepper, Daniel; Culpepper, John; Culpepper, Thompson; Culpepper, William; Cure, Ezekel; Curey, John; Curtiss, Samuel; Dark, Samuel; Davis, Gabriel; Davis, James; Davis, John; Davis, Jonathan; Davis, Matthew; Davis, Robert; Davis, Thomas; Davis, William; Debury, Samuel; Delap, James; Delap, Robert; Denson, james; Denson, Shadrach; Deviney, Samuel; Digges, William; Dinkins, thomas; Dison, Charlie; Dixon, Simon; Dobbins, Jacob; Donner, Thomas; Dorset, Francis; Dowd, Dyer; Dowdy, Daniel; Dowas, Richard; Dinkins, William; Dray, Jacob; Drinkin, William; Duckworth, Jeremiah; Dumas, Benjamin; Dumas, David; Dunem, John; Dunn, Bartholomew; Dunn, John; Dunn, Simon Jr.; Dunn, William; Edwards, Meager; Edwards, Josua; Ellis, James; Emmerson, James; English, Joseph; English, Matthew; English, William; Erwin, John; Estress, George; Estress, William; Evans, Aaron; Evans, James; Falconbery, Andrew; Falconbery, Henry; Falconbery, Isaac Sr.; Falconbery, Isaac Jr.; Falconbery, John; Fall, Christen; Fannin, John; Fanning, Thomas Sr.; Fanning, Thomas Jr.; Fany, William; Few, Benjamin; Few, James; Few, William Sr.; Fields, Jeremiah; Fields, William; Fielding, William; Fike, John; Filker, Jacob; Firnier, Marton; Flack, Thomas; Flake, Samuel; Flemmin, John; Forbis, John; Fortenbury, Henry; Fortenbury, John; Foshea, Joseph; Fox, Thomas; Franklin, Leonard; French, Neal; French, Joseph; Fruite, John; Fudge, Jacob; Fuller, John; Fuller, Josua; Fuller, Thomas; Futrelle, Thomas; Fyke, Malachy; Gapen, John; Gardner, Parish; Garran, James; Gaylord, Samuel; Gearner, Thomas; George, Joseph; Gibson, James; Gibson, Silverster; Gibson, Walter; Gibson, William; Gideon, Gilbert Sr.; Gideon, Gilbert Jr.; Gilbert, Jonathan; Gilbert Joshua; Gillespie, Daniel; Gillespie, John; Gillmore, William; Gilmer, John; Ginil, Peter; Glase, Christian; Glase, George; Glase, Philip Jr.; Glase, Philip Sr.; Glase, Powel; Glover, Thomas; Goble, George; Gible, John (Goble?); Goble, Nicholas; Goff, Solomon; Goldstone, Charles; Gordon, Frank; Gowers, Thomas; Gowers, Jonathan; Graham, James; Graves, John; Greaves, Thomas; Green, William; Greers, William; Griffin, Andrew; Griffin, James; Grigg, Jacob; Gring, Fagan; Gross, Solomon; Grubbs, Benjamin; Grubbs, John; Gugle, John; Hadley, James A.; Hadley, Jesse; Hadley, Joshua; Hadley, Simeon; Haley, Isam; Haley, Silas; Haley, William Sr.; Haley, William Jr.; Hamilton, Archibald; Hamilton, Hanson; Hamilton, Matthew; Hamilton, Ninian; Hamilton, Ninian Bell; Hamilton, Thomas; Hammer, Abraham; Harden, Stephen; Haridon, James; Harland, Aaron; Harland, Reuben; Harlow, Eron; Harmon, Zach; Harper, Abraham; Harper, Samuel; Harper, Thomas; Harris, Joseph; Harrison, Jesse; Harrison, Joseph; Hart, John; Hartzo, John; Hartso, Philip; Helms, Jonathan; Henderson, Argulus; Henderson, John; Helms, Tilmon; Henderson, William; Hendry, George; Hendrye, Thomas Jr.; Hendrye, Thomas Sr.; Henry, George; Henson, Charles; Henson, John; Henson, Joseph; Herndon, James; Henson, Joseph; Herndon, James; Henson, William; Herring, Delany; Herrman, Henry; Hickman, William; Hielerman, Nicholas; Higgins, James; Higgins, John; Higgins, William; Hill, Thomas; Hilton, Abraham; Hilton, John; Hindes, Joseph; Hines, Charles; Hinsinbru, Jason Iron; Hintrand, William; Hogins, Thadwick; Hogon, William Griffin; Holley, Julius; Honest, Michael; Hopper, Thomas; Hore, William; Horn, Jacob; Hornbeck, John; Howard, Nehemiah; Howe, John; Laws, Dan; Layn, Marveric; Leak, Richard; Leary, William; Leaton, William; Leveritt, John; Leveritt, William; Liles, James; Liles, John; Lille, Muicher; Lindley, Thomas; Linterman, Henry; Litten, Mincher; Llewellyn, Jonathan; Lloyd, Thomas; Lloyd, Iomond; Logan, Andrew; Long, John; Lord, Lewis; Lowe, James; Lowe, John; Lowe, Samuel; Lowery, James; Lowery, Lewis; Lowery, Robert; Lucas, William Jr.; Luin, John; McCaul, James; McCay, Daniel; McClewland, John; McCoy, Archibald; McCoy, John; McDaniel, Jacob; McIlvailly, John; Mackejh, James; McMeot, James; McNish, John; McPherson, Joseph; McPherson, Alexander; MacPherson, William; McQuinton, John; McSwaine, Patrick; Macvay, John; Maner, Richard; Marchbanks, George; Marfay, Roger; Marmane, Larence; Marsevaine, John; Marshall, Jacob; Marshall, John; Martin, Joseph; Martin, Zachariah; Mason, John; Mason, Ralph; Mason, Thomas Jr.; Mason, Thomas Sr.; Massett, William; Mateer, Robert; Mathew, Ned; Mathews, Anthony; Mathews, James; Mathews, John; Mathin, Anthony; Maudlin, Benjamin; Maudlin, John; Maudlin, Jonie; Meadow, Jason Jr.; Meadow, Jason Sr.; Melon, Thomas; Melton, Jeremiah; Mercer, Forester; Merns, Thomas; Merree, John II; Merrill, Benjamin; Messer, Captain; Miles, Charles; Miles, John Sr.; Miles, John Jr.; Miles, Thomas; Miller, Jero; Mills, John; Mims, John; Mims, Thomas; Mims, William; Mitchell, William; Moffitt, James; Mofitt, William; Montgomery, Captain; Moon, Thomas; Moore, Edward; Moore, Thomas; Moorman, Bennakia; Moorman, Thomas; Morgan, Goin C.; Morgan, John; Morgan, James; Morgan, Ruddy; Morgan, Solomon; Morris, Edward; Morris, John; Morris, Joseph; Morris, William Sr.; Morris, William Jr.; Morrow, William; Moses, Adam; Muchecenes, Larence; Mullen, Patrick; Murphy, John; Murphy, John; Murray, James; Nanit, George; Nation, Christopher; Needham, Thomas; Needham, William; Nelson, Dennis Sr.; Nelson, Dennis Jr.; Nelson, Thomas; Newberry, William; Noe, John; Norton, William; Odle, Nehemiah; Oliver, James; O’Neal, John; Owens, Stephen; Paine, William; Par, John; Park, Joseph; Parks, Samuel; Parsons, George; Paterson, John; Paygee, John; Payne, William; Pelyou, Abraham; Penton, John; Person, Thomas; Phelps, David; Phipps, John; Phipps, Joseph; Pickett, Edward; Piecock, Stephen; Pickral, Henry; Piles, John; Pilgrim, Amos; Pleourt, John; Polk, Thomas; Pooey, Francis; Pooey, Umfrey; Porter, James; Poston, Jonathan; Poston, J. Jr.; Powell, Nathaniel; Preslar, Thomas; Preslie, John; Prestwood, Augustine; Pryor, John; Pugh, Enoch; Pugh, James; Pugh, Jesse; Pugh, John; Pugh, Thomas; Raiford, Matthew Jr.; Raiford, Matthew Sr.; Raines, John; Ramsay, James; Ramsay, John; Ramsouer, Michael; Raney, William; Ranetalor, Thomas; Rankin, William; Ratcliff, Elisha R.; Ratcliff, Sam Jr.; Ratcliff, Samuel; Ray, Samuel; Rennolds, Peth; Richardson, Sam; Richardson, Joseph; Richerson, Peter; Riddle, thomas; Roberson, Thomas; Robertson, James; Robeson, William; Robins, James; Robinson, Charles; Robinson, Luke; Rogers, Hyram; Rogers, jacob; Robinson, Tirey; Rogers, Josiah; Rogers, Sion; Rogers, William; Roles, Damsey; Rollins, Drury; Round, James; Routh, Joseph; Rudd, Burlingham; Ruine, David; Rushen, Mark; Ryle, John; Ryan, John; Sally, George A.; Sanders, David; Sanders, James; Sanders, Thomas E.; Sanders, William; Sanderson, Reuben; Sands, Richard; Sappenfield, Matthias; Sounders, Patrick; Saxon, Benjamin; Saxon, Charles; Schwenck, Matthew; Searcy, Reuben; Self, Job; Sellars, Thomas; Senderman, Henry; Shaw, Philip Jr.; Shaw, Philip Sr.; Shepherd, John; Shoemaker, Conrad; Shor, John; Short, Daniel; Short, James; Short, William; Sidden, William; Sidewell, John; Sike, Christian; Simmons, John; Sims, George; Sitton, Philip; Skin, Samuel; Skinner, John; Skipper, Barnabee; Skipper, George; Slaughter, Owen; Smith, Abner; Smith, Alexander; Smith, Benjamin; Smith, Charles; Smith, Daniel; Smith, David; Smith, David; Smith, Edward; Smith, Francois; Smith, Henry; Smith, John; Smith, John; Smith, Moses; Smith, Peter; Smith, Richard; Smith, Robert; Smith, Will; Smith, Zachariah; Snider, John; Sondhill, John S.; Soots, Jacob; Southerland, Raleigh; Soewll, Charles S.; Sowel, John; Sowell, Sam; Sowel, Lewis; Sowel, William; Spinks, William; Springfellow, William; Stewart, James; Stewart, John; Stinkberry, John; Stinton, Eron; Stokes, Henry; Stollie, Jacob; Strader, Henry; Stringer, John; Strongfellow, William; Stroud, Abraham; Suggs, John T.; Sutton, John; Sweany, James; Sweany, Joseph; Swearington, Van; Swearinger, Samuel; Swearinger, Thomas; Swearinger, Thomas; Swift, Thomas; Swing, Barnet; Swing, Lodwick; Swor, John Jr.; Swor, John Sr.; Swor, Jonathan Jr.; Tallant, Moses M.; Tallant, Thomas; Tapley, Hosea; Taylor, thomas; Teague, Abraham; Teague, Edward; Teague, Elijah; Teague, John; Teague, Joshua; Teague, Moses; Teague, William; Telfair, Jacob; Temply, Frederick; Thomas, John; Thomas, Samuel; Thomas, Zekial; Thompson, Elisha; Thompson, John; Thompson, Robert; Thompson, Samuel; Thompson, William; Thorn, Robert; Thornsbury, Edward; Thornsbury, William; Thornton, Abraham; Thornton, Thomas; Thorton, David; Thredhill, William; Tomlinson, Turner; Tomson, William; Tonenberg, Samuel; Torrance, John; Touchberry, John; Tree, Thomas; Treneen, William; Trull, Thomas; Tukins, Timothy; Turner, Jonathan; Tynor, William; Upton, James; Ussery, Thomas; Ussery, Welcome; Ussery, William; Vernon, Amos; Vickory, John; Vickory, Marmaduke; Vonstraver, Peter; Wade, Henry; Wagner, Samuel; Wainscott, Isaac; Walker, John; Walker, Silvanus; Walker, William; Walkers, Robert; Walkinford, Charles; Wallas, Jesse; Waller, Thomas; Walsh, Walter; Ward, William Jr.; Ward, William Sr.; Warse, Hysom; Watson, Jacob; Watson, William Jr.; Watts, John; Watts, Malachi; Webb, Beaty; Webb, John; Webb, Joseph; Webb, Leonard; Webb, Richard; Webb, Robert; Webb, William; Wed, John; Welch, Henry; Welch, Walter; Wellborn, Thomas; Whit, Ulrich; White, Augustine; White, Charles; White, James; White, James; White, John; White, Joseph; White, William; Whitt, Jacob; Wilbourne, Thomas; Wilcox, John; Wilkerson, James Sr.; Wilkins, Alexander; Wilkins, John; Wilkins, Robert; Wilkins, William; Willet, James; Williams, Eshmael; Williams, James; William, John; Williams, John; Williams, Nehemiah; Williams, Samuel; Williams, Solomon; Williams, Theofilis; Wills, James; Wilson, George; Wilson, James; Wilson, John; Wilson, Thomas; Wineham, Richard; Winkler, John; Winter, Daniel; Wood, Nathaniel; Wood, Robert; Woodward, Reuben; Woody, Robert; Word, Thomas; Wren, Prusley; Wright, Philbert; Wright, Thomas; Wyley, Hugh; Yeamons, Stokey; York, Robinson; York, Seymour; Youngblood, John; Younger, James This list only contains the names of 800+ regulators, while it is known that 6,409 signed the amnesty list. Plus, the above list includes some who died in the movement or perhaps moved out of NC after the violence and before the amnesty. Thus, the lack of Maiden and Passwater names on this list are not definitive in terms of them not being regulators. The fact that John Maiden seems to have been friendly with the same William Butler as was a prime force n this movement contemporaneous to this movement (at least in 1770 when William Butler’s son William was born) suggests he was sympathetic to the Regular cause. William Brown, William Butler, James Copeland, Herman Cox, Samuel Deviney, James Emmerson, John Hartzo, Robert Mateer, Forester Mercer, Benjamin Merrill, Captain Messer, James Pugh, Raleigh Southerland, James Stewart, Robert Thompson were highlighted as of special significance in the movement. It is clear that John Maiden’s good friend William Butler was a prime mover in th movement. The following description is of 1768, by which time William Butler had already moved to Rowan/Iredell: In March, the “Association” repeated the same points in stronger terms, and by April the group called themselves “Regulators”—they would attempt to “regulate” local government. Tension was growing, and the Regulators now wrote a new “advertisement” demanding that the Orange County sheriff show them his tax lists, collection records, and fee tables. Meanwhile, local officials were furious. Edmund Fanning referred to the Regulators as “the mob,” and declared that they seemed to think themselves “the sovereign arbiters of right and wrong.” A simple act was all that was needed to set off the Regulatory powder keg. Perhaps it was meant as a show of force, perhaps it was merely bad timing. In any case, a day or two before the last Regulator petition reached Orange officials, sheriff’s officers seized a Regulator’s horse, saddle, and bridle for tax payment. On April 8, 1768, eighty angry Regulators marched on the county seat at Hillsborough. Armed with “clubs, staves & and cloven muskets,” the group captured and bound Sheriff Hawkins, then “rescued” the horse and tack. As they left town, some of the group fired shots into Colonel Fanning’s house. “Ned” Fanning himself was away at the time, attending court in Halifax. Informed of the Regulators’ actions, he ordered the arrest of three “ringleaders” of the riot, then called out seven companies of the Orange militia. Next, he hurried back to Hillsborough to take command of the militia forces, writing Governor Tryon an agitated letter asking for more authority to deal with the “traitorous Dogs . . .” On hearing the news, Tryon’s Council declared the Regulators guilty of insurrection. Fanning was authorized to call up militia from the surrounding counties if such action was necessary, and Tryon himself offered to come to Hillsborough. Meanwhile, terrified office-holders in Orange agreed to meet with the Regulators to discuss grievances. While these preparations were being made, Fanning and a posse raided the Sandy Creek area, arresting William Butler and Herman Husband on a charge of “inciting to rebellion.” The two prisoners were carried to Hillsborough and held in the town jail. When news of the arrests reached the Regulators, they dropped plans for the meeting and 700 strong, Regulators and their supporters again marched on Hillsborough. County officials, with little sure force at their disposal, released the two prisoners on bail. Isaac Edwards, the governor’s private secretary, was in Hillsborough at the time. Speaking (it appeared at the time) for the governor, Edwards promised that, if the Regulators would peaceably disburse and petition, the governor “would see that justice was done them.” The Regulators agreed to the request. On hearing of this action, Tryon declared that his secretary had exceeded his authority. The governor stated that he would not deal with the Regulators as an organization and demanded that they immediately disband; he also offered hope for settlement of the Regulators’ grievances: I shall give His Majesty’s Attorney General Orders to prosecute every officer who has been guilty of Extortion or illegal Practices in his office upon any Application or information lodged with him. . . As you want to be satisfied what is the amount of the Tax for the Public Service. . . I am to inform you it is seven shillings a taxable besides the County and Parish Taxes… There was other trouble in the backcounty. On April 27, 1768, a mob of about 100 men disrupted the proceedings of the Anson County court. They questioned the clerk on taxes and fees, openly debated possible violence, and resolved that they would not pay taxes. The men referred to themselves as “this company of Regulators.” Tryon responded to the Anson incident by giving county officials power to raise the county militia and to arrest the “Ringleaders and Principals of the late Disturbance. . .” Again, he called for Regulators to express their grievances through proper channels. Writing to a court official, Tryon expressed his views on the Regulators’ refusal to pay taxes: As you are well acquainted with the nature of Taxation I shall only observe that it is the indispensable Lot of Mankind who live in Society, to give a part of their Property to the Government which affords them a secure and quiet enjoyment of the remainder. Whereupon whoever refuses to pay such part which the Occasions of Government may require, forfeits his title of Protection from it and leaves his Family and Property at the Will of his lawless Associates, & himself at the mercy of the Laws of his Country, which can never want vigor and force sufficient to support its dignity and efficacy. This contagion and disaffection has spread from Anson to Orange County… Problems in the backcountry were now such that Tryon himself acted. On July 21 he issued a new “Proclamation Against charging Exorbitant Fees,” demanding that fee tables be posted and that illegal practices be stopped. The governor also prepared to visit the western part of the province, apparently with two purposes in mind: (1) to persuade the Regulators to disband and follow a more proper course for redress of grievances; (2) to protect the September term of Superior Court—the court that was to try Butler and Husband on charges of inciting the recent “Hillsborough Riot.” The Governor arrived in Hillsborough on July 6. In spite of his previous declaration that he would not deal with the organized Regulators, Tryon and the insurgents began exchanging messages. To further convince the backcountry of his good intentions, the governor ordered the attorney general to institute prosecutions against officers charged with taking illegal fees. One officer thus charged was Edmund Fanning. The Regulators listened, but would promise only to petition the Assembly for redress. They would not disband, nor would they agree to make a bond for their good behavior at the upcoming court. Many Regulators continued to distrust—and misunderstand—the governor’s efforts on their behalf. An attempt to read Tryon’s latest proclamation to a Regulator assemblage by Sheriff Tyree Harris was met with threats of violence. William Butler was quoted as saying, “We are determined not to pay the Tax for the next three years, for the Edifice or Governor’s House, nor will we pay for it.” Tryon called out the militia to protect the court. Knowing that many backcountry men were sympathetic to the Regulator cause, the governor began courting ministers of the area’s churches. In turn, the ministers worked to persuade their congregations of the folly of the Regulators. In one instance, four Presbyterian ministers wrote an open letter to all congregations in the colony, urging the church members to Submit yourself to every ordinance of Man for the Lord’s sake, whether it be to the King as supreme, or unto Governors as those that are sent by him for the Punishment of Evil Doers, and for the Praise of them that do well. And We earnestly recommend to the whole Presbyterian Body, in this Province a Spirit of Loyalty and cheerful Obedience to Law and Government, that you may transmit to your Posterity the reputation you derived from your Ancestors, secure the continuance of your Civil and Religious liberties, and merit the future notice and indulgence of the Legislature… With the help of such influential forces, Tryon was able to raise 1,461 men from Rowan, Mecklenburg, Granville, and Orange counties. Apparently, however, the governor still had his difficulties. After the militia had been dismissed, Tryon wrote, “I can with great integrity declare that I never experienced the same anxiety and fatigue of spirits as I did last summer in raising and conducting the troops. . .” The September term of the Hillsborough District of the superior court-trial scene for four men of Regulator principles: Herman Husband, William Butler, Samuel Devinney, and John Hartzo. County officials Edmund Fanning (Register), Francis Nash (Clerk of Court), and Sheriff John Wood were also on trial for extortion. Husband was acquitted of the charge of “inciting a riot.” The three other Regulator defendants were found guilty of the same charge, but Tryon suspended the fines and released the prisoners. Later, the three received a full pardon from the governor. Nearly 800 Regulators had assembled outside Hillsborough, awaiting the outcome of the court trials. They were only partially disappointed. Colonel Edmund Fanning was found guilty on five counts of extortion, and fined one penny for each count. However, the three judges (Martin Howard, Chief; Maurice Moore and Richard Henderson, Associates) were unsure of the legality of judging Fanning guilty, and the case was referred to England for further interpretation. The end result was that Fanning, who had immediately resigned as Register, was never fined. (English authorities would later find him innocent of the charges.) The Regulators felt that justice had not been served—a man whom they heard declared guilty was not punished. The complicated fee table, however, allowed separate charges for certifying different parts of the same document, a fact that the Regulators and apparently even the colony’s chief justice did not fully understand. Popular history, and the prejudice of the Regulators, would declare the haughty Fanning “guilty,” but the real villain was the complex fee law. Tryon sympathized with the Regulators: “To say that these insurgents had not a colour for their shewing a dissatisfaction at the conduct of their public officers would be doing them an injustice for on a prosecution at the Superior Court carried on by the attorney general in the virtue of my directions both the Register and Clerk of the county were found quilty of taking too high fees.” TRYON’S AMNESTY PROCLAMATION 31 MAY 1771 North Carolina. By His Excellency William Tryon Esquire His Majesty’s Captain General and Governor in chief in and over the said Province. A Proclamation. Whereas I am informed that many Persons who have been concerned in the late Rebellion are desirous of submitting themselves to Government, I do therefore give notice that every Person who will come in, either mine or General Waddells Camp, lay down the Arms, take the Oath of Allegiance, and promise to pay all Taxes that are now due or may hereafter become due by them respectively, and submit to the Laws of this Country, shall have His Majestys most gracious and free pardon for all Treasons Insurrections and Rebellions done or committed on or before the 16th Inst., provided they make their submission aforesaid on or before the 10th of June next. The following Persons are however excepted from the Benefit of this Proclamation, Viz. All the outlaws, the prisoners in Camp, and the undernamed persons, Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn, Jr., Abraham Creson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkerson, Sr., Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring [Boren], William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler and John WILCOX. Given under my Hand and the Great Seal of the said Province at Hainay Camp this 31st May a Dom 1771. Wm. Tryon God save the King. (The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 8, 1769-1771, By William L. Saunders, Secretary of State, Raleigh NC 1890). COLONIAL RECORDS: [From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State] NORTH CAROLINA By His Excellency William Tryon Esq, His Majesty’d Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over the said Province — A Proclamation. Whereas Herman Husband, James Hunter, Rednap Howell and William Butler are Outlawed and liable to be shot by any Person whatever, I do therefore, that they may be punished for the Traterous and Rebellious Crimes they have committed, issue this my Proclamation hereby offering a Reward of One Hundred Pounds and one thousand acres of Land to any Person or Persons who will take Dead or Alive and bring into mine or General Waddell’s Camp either and each of the above named outlaws. given under my Hand and the great Seal of the said Province at Bathabara this ninth day of June in the year of our Lord 1771. Signed Wm. Tryon By His excellency’s command Js. Edwards, P. Sec. A Proclamation. Whearas I am informed that many Persons who have been concerned in the late Rebellion are desirous of submitting themselves to Government, I do therefore give Notice that every Person who will come in either to mine or General Waddell’s Camp, lay d their Arms, take the Oath of Allegiance and promise to pay all Taxes that are now due or may hereafter become due by them respectively and submit to the Laws of this Country shall have His Majestys most Gracious and Free Pardon for all Treasons, Insurrections and Rebellions done or committed on or before the Sixteenth of May last. Provided they make their submission aforesaid on or before the Tenth of July next; the following Persons are however excepted from the Benefit of this Proclamation Viz, all the Outlaws, the Prisoners, all those concerned in blowing up General Waddel Ammunition in Mecklenburg County, and the under named Person, to wit, Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr., Abraham Creson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkerson Sen., Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John WILCOX, Jacob Felker, and Thomas Person. Given under my Hand and the Great Seal of the Province, this eleventh day of June A. Dom. 1771 (signed) Wm. Tryon. God save the King. Note: The list of 6409 responders who requested amnesty has not yet been located.